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The Battle of Neuve-Chapelle I THE GREAT WAR Week 33

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We’ve so far seen the horrors of modern
war; the ones on the battlefield anyhow. Today we’ll also see one of the tragic by-products
of the war, the death behind the lines, the painful, lingering horror of epidemic disease. I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. Last week we saw the British beat the Turks
and Arabs back from the oil supplies in Persia, French attacks continued in the west with
minor success, the British and the French were shelling the Dardanelles from the sea,
and the Austrians attacked the Russians ineffectively again and again in the Carpathian Mountains. We’ve seen an awful lot of action on the
Eastern Front lately what with the Austrian and German Offensives of the past few weeks,
but this week I’m going to focus actually on the Western Front, where the Battle of
Neuve Chapelle began on March 10th. This was the first major attack by the British
Expeditionary Force against German entrenched positions. It was conducted by the First Army
under General Sir Douglas Haig. One specific problem Haig saw that had become
evident by watching the French Champagne Offensive throughout the winter was that the big guns
would have to deal with the German barbed wire defenses or the infantry couldn’t get
across no-mans land. Wire cutters were simply too slow and left men too exposed. So before
the battle, the British conducted tests behind the lines to figure out which type of shells
did the job best and how long a bombardment was needed. It turned out shrapnel shells
were best for ripping the wire into scraps; high explosive shells blew it up into the
air, but when it came back down it was still a problem. The British plan was to break through the
German trenches, and capture the village and ridge of Auber, which would disrupt the German
communications lines to Lille. To kick off the battle the morning of the 10th, 342 big
guns launched a half hour barrage, the fire being directed by 85 Reconnaissance planes.
Many of those aircraft carried wireless equipment that could send corrections of position directly
to the gunners. This was something really new. Just as a side note here- more shells were
fired in that half hour barrage than were fired during the entire Boer War, which lasted
two and a half years, little more than a decade earlier. That’s how much the nature of war
had developed since the turn of the century. In addition to that, to quote Peter Hart,
“A fire programme was drawn up for every gun, denoting targets, the timings of switches
in target and the number of rounds to be fired. It seemed complex at the time, but this was
merely the start of a process that would grow out of all recognition. This was the future.”
Indeed it was; there was much of the planning and execution of Neuve Chapelle that was a
hint of things to come. After four hours of fighting on March 10th,
a lot of it hand-to-hand, Neuve Chapelle was captured and four lines of German trenches
were taken. Thing is, you could see the functional conditions
for failure almost from the beginning. After taking the Germans totally by surprise- something
that would rarely happen again- and after the big initial gains, the infantry had Orders
to pause for 15 minutes while the artillery shelled the ruins of the village to get any
remaining defenders, but there were none. The Germans were hurrying to the strongpoints
way to the rear they had set up for precisely such a breakthrough. And then again, when the British rushed into
open country beyond the battle zone, with victory within reach and the ridge in sight,
the Orders said they were to again wait. This gave the Germans ample time to regroup and
organize a new defense, which was machine guns that began to pulverize the British left
flank of leading attackers. The British plans for the attack also called
for reserves to fill the gap left by the leading troops, so you soon had around 9,000 men packed
into the small space between Neuve Chapelle and the original trenches just hanging around
waiting to go forward. They would’ve been sitting ducks back there, but very fortunately
the German artillery within range was way low on ammunition. There was also no radio
at the front yet and even with the quickest communications available, British junior officers
had to pass their info up the chain of command to officers miles behind the battlefront requesting
authority for altering the set in stone general plans, then that information would be considered,
and then the answer would have to go all the way back down the chain of command to the
junior officers. What all of this meant in practical terms
is that between the time that the German lines were broken through and the ridge really was
open for the taking, and the time the advance actually happened there was over eight hours
delay and the chance was lost with pretty heavy casualties because the Germans had had
time to bring in reserves. And you know what? Two days later, in a German
counter attack, exactly the same thing happened to the Germans. Well, they didn’t break
through, but the delays for their changes of plans had given the British time to install
20 machine guns in strategic positions and it was the German turn to be stopped with
heavy losses. So the casualty lists for the battle ended
up being not too far from each other; the British nearly 12,000 and the Germans nearly
9,000 and it was basically a draw, but for the British it was at least a partial victory
since it rebuilt their reputation as a fighting force in French eyes. It was pretty unfair
that they had ever been doubted, but there you go. The thing is, it wasn’t really the
British soldiers, but their commanders that had been doubted. See, most of these men had
had a colonial battle outlook and they expected decisive results with only small casualties.
The French leaders, by contrast, came from a tradition of expecting heavy casualties
in the field. What Haig had really attempted to do at Neuve-Chapelle
was to “bite and hold”; quickly take a piece of the enemy’s line and hold it against
counter-attack. The idea being that the counter attacks would be far more deadly to the enemy.
The problem was that in 1915, the British didn’t have the artillery, the shells, and
especially the communications to make this work, and the small scale of the “bite”
didn’t appeal to Commander in Chief John French anyhow. We would see bigger bites in
future. Something else we would see more of in the
future, that we tragically saw a lot of at this time, was disease. Let’s look back
a few months for a sec. When the Austro-Hungarian army had invaded
Serbia last fall, there was an epidemic of typhus among the Austrian troops, and when
they retreated, they left behind an enormous number of sick and wounded troops that had
been captured, who were most often held in terribly unsanitary conditions, in a war torn
and impoverished nation, and by January 1915 there was a full-blown typhus epidemic in
Serbia. It raged for the first three months of the year, finally petering out by the summer,
but infected as many as 500,000 Serbs- one out of every six people in the country- with
over 200,000 dying in one of the worst typhus epidemics in history, sending that little
Balkan nation deeper into despair, and weakening its armed forces even further. Roughly 70,000
of those who died were troops. How do you cope with this? At the beginning
of the outbreak, there were only around 400 doctors in the whole country, and virtually
all of them became infected, and around a third of them died. Hospitals were full to
overflowing since you had up to 10,000 new cases a day. There weren’t nurses; there
weren’t even enough gravediggers to keep up. There was one perverse benefit- Serbia
was crippled by disease both militarily and politically for six months, but the Austrians
didn’t invade them; General Typhus was securing the border. This was a week of flux. The Austrians who
were avoiding Serbia were going nowhere in the Carpathians, the Germans and Russians
were re-grouping in northern Poland, the Dardanelles were still being bombarded nearly every day,
the British finally launched an offensive in the west but the Germans made a draw, and
in Serbia there were no battles, but disease was rampant. Typhus was not endemic to Serbia prior to
the war, mainly because by the 1880s lice were basically eliminated there by public
health campaigns, and it was the lice that mainly spread the disease. See, the tens of
thousands of Austrian wounded and sick in the Serbian campaign late in 1914 were all
concentrated in the field hospital at occupied Valjevo; not some of them, all of them. When
the Serbs liberated Valjevo, they found a horror scene. Also, huge numbers of displaced
refugees from around the country came to Valjevo, where there was no housing for them and no
decent hygiene and when railway depots, by necessity, were turned into local refugee
stations the disease spread throughout the country. Those Austrian sick and wounded had been abandoned
by their comrades when they retreated from Valjevo; I find it hard to think their commanders
didn’t know the disease would spread, and this- this illness, or any illness, is one
of the worst horrors of the war, for this affects those who cannot fight, this kills
those who need protection the most, and also those, like doctors, who care and help the
most. This is one of the greatest cruelties of war. Actually, a few weeks ago, it seemed the Austro-Hungarian
empire was the first major power to reach it’s war goals. Check out our episode about
Week 19 of the war for more details about the Austro-Hungarian army taking Belgrade right here. Follow us on Instagram for looks behind the
scenes and don’t forget to subscribe. See you next week!

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100 thoughts on “The Battle of Neuve-Chapelle I THE GREAT WAR Week 33”

  1. ChuckNorrison says:

    An excellent episode as always, but there was one mistake at 7:55. Kovno or Kaunas is not Northern Poland it's Lithuania

  2. Adam Corsaut says:

    Good sir,

    I have enjoyed this channel thus far. Your videos show great depth and understanding of the first world war. I do, however, have one issue. It would appear that the contributions of Canada are being overlooked. I hope that in future videos you can highlight the great acts and battles that Canadian troops were apart of. Especially, in due time, the battle of Vimy ridge.

  3. Mako says:

    What's your opinion on the game Valiant Hearts: The Great War ? And why do you think there are so many games/movies about WW2 , while WW1 is almost ignored? Thank you in advance and keep up the good work .

  4. Mikael Lindholm says:

    Hi! I love your channel! Are you going to talk about the eastern european countries that claim independence from Russia during the war?

  5. LambChowder1 says:

    Can you make a bio on John French and his sort of fall from grace

  6. Scott Bombardier says:

    I LOVE this series! I spent the whole day today watching every video, and I've learned more on WW I then I ever knew before. I've always relished historical warfare, but WWI and the sheer numbers always bogged my brain down. It's staggering …… thank you for bringing this to us all!

  7. RobertDeville says:

    01:42 Fascinating that you have picked up on Aubers & later mention the opportunity missed by the British to capture the ridge – it is perhaps this missed opportunity that cost my great uncle & over 12,000 others their lives on the 9th May 1915 in the disastrous one day Battle of Aubers Ridge (I do hope you cover this, it is often overlooked) whose tactics, such as they were, were the forerunner for the Somme offensive in 1916.

  8. Frank Goodwill says:

    In you segment about the Battle of Neuve Chapelle you made no mention of the Indian Army. The 7th (Meerut) Division led the attack – a shame you didn't mention it. With regard to using Shrapnel Shells to cut the German barbed wire. It worked at the Battle on Neuve Chapelle but the Germans later made the wire with thicker strands. This contributed to less success in cutting the German wire at the Battle of the Somme in 1916.

  9. wolfpackvisual says:

    I'm completely hooked on this channel!   This should honestly be on the history channel… you know, rather than ancient aliens… etc.

  10. Marko Radokicik says:

    Now i know that Neuve-chapelle was a village. thank you valiant hearts:the great war

  11. Wes Eeuwes says:

    did the austrains let those sick men behind to start a epedemic in Serbia or is bio war not yet discoverd?????

  12. raider762 says:

    O I see I think… the Austrians didn't want the Typhus, so they stayed away. Seems like germ warfare, although unintentional since the Austria-Hungarians are too incompetent for that.

  13. cjl1586A says:

    What the Austrians did in Serbia almost sounds like biological warfare.

  14. RobustFilms1 says:

    You guys do a fucking blazing job on these videos, I cant wait to see how this channel grows by the wars end

  15. Peter Nouwen says:

    Lol talking about the the toll of disease. It is about to get worse in WWI with the Spanish flu. But that's somewhere around 1917/1918…

  16. Thebes Athens says:

    It's odd. I remember visiting Serbia and seeing the graves of my ancestors who unfortunately fell ill to Typhus. It's tragic, one of them was just a baby, the other a beautiful 18 year old. Their lives were cut short needlessly, they were innocent villagers who deserved better. It's a miracle that their brother, my great-grand father managed to survive who without, I wouldn't even be here. The difference between existence and non-existence is so slim, almost horrifying to almost contemplate.

  17. Luke DS says:

    Are You telling Me Indy, that the Austro-Hungarian commanders were more afraid of their own typhus than the actual enemy? I honestly don't see the difference strategically between losing 250000 soldiers to the environment, machine guns and artillery than disease.

  18. anjetto1 says:

    Oh wait, I just realized that I'll have to wait until next year to get the the Irish uprising attempt. The Easter Rising….

  19. Jebediah Kermin says:

    4:08 Do i see carrier pidgeon pockets?

  20. Eric C'arlson says:

    RE TYPHUS
    as we have seen the Austro-Hungarians were completely incompetent to do anything= so why do you attribute leaving sick soldiers (and prisoners) behind as some sort of wilful or almost intentional act?

  21. nemo nilnada says:

    shrapnel shells did not actually do much harm to barbed wire. This is a major reason why the first day of the Somme was such a catrastrophe. After a weeks bombardement with mainly shrapnel the barbed wire was still almost intact. But the British used mainly shrapnel because they had a huge stockpile of them as opposed to high explosives. This was due to the fact that the British had little in terms of heavy artillery before the war and the industry hadn´t quite caught up with the demand

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVaVTKKEDUQ&list=PLLb4Aujw26R6ztTN6NM1OKjT9Sfd25bFJ

  22. franzlimit says:

    Hearing about this diseases.. Were there any known biological warfare in the first world war? We know about biological warfare in the second world war and I am fully aware that the knowledge was a bit limited at the beginning of the 20th century. Anyway, Koch and Pasteur was allready thaught in universities -> They knew allready enough about diseases to make minor biological attacks theoretically possible. So were there any?

  23. newspaniard says:

    Just reached this point (29 Nov 15). Were there no complaints by the rank and file? If so did they write to the press? Did they voice their horror stories to friends and relatives back on their home front? I can't believe that so many other ranks died without voicing their agony and contempt for their officers.

  24. TastyCrayon says:

    The battle-lines move so little, I sometimes think I've gone back a few videos.

  25. Johnny Mellon says:

    von Hotzendorf was on holiday this week? no completly retarded stuff?

  26. Harry Andruschak says:

    "Lions led by Donkeys"

  27. Daniel Lewis says:

    I wonder if they ever considered using large hook guns with cranks to deal with the barbed wire, pulling the barbed wire out of the way.

  28. megatwingo says:

    Hello!
    I wanted to give some constructive critics here.
    I like that show here. I find it very interesting an I'm always upvoting the videos.
    That said:
    Maybe it is only me….but I am highly distracted and irritated time and time again by the unnecessary background music. Partly it is that loud that I have to struggle to follow the explanations of the narrator.
    I find it unneccessary to add that background music.
    I don't need added "dramatic" music to find those explanations in the video interesting and it isn't adding a "dramatic" or "sad" or any other mood to those facts of history.
    Or at least: Try to make that music not THAT dominant and loud.
    Otherwise a very interesting show.
    Greetings
    Mega

  29. Fribourg2012 says:

    great stuff Indy with sub titles ty

  30. mariusstana says:

    The big question here is …. was it worth it for the Serbs , Romanians and all the other nationalities from A-H…. so much death….

  31. Matthew Wallack says:

    +The Great War: Would you then argue that the Austro-Hungarians engaged in deliberate biological warfare by leaving their men like that at Valjevo? Great series by the way!

  32. ChernobylPizza says:

    Okay let's not start saying civilians matter more than soldiers. None of this women and children crap. They're all people.

  33. Steve17010 says:

    Diseases have plagued almost every army and the countries where armies have gathered though out history. In the American Civil War, more soldiers died of disease than on the battlefield. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia, typhus killed tens of thousands of his Grand Army.

  34. Joshua Stewart says:

    This is like a dream come true for me and my Historian side.

    You guys need to get this on NetFlix some how, Seriously, this is far better than anything I've seen from the history channel or anything like that.

  35. Peter Timowreef says:

    The Boer war wasn't between two large highly undustrialised and well-equipped nations.

  36. DaniloThePopa says:

    Man, you should do the episode on Flora Sandes! Try googleing her!

  37. Vito C says:

    I'm getting kind of annoyed at my current batting average of predicting when Indy will say " this was modern war "

    1.) Wait for it…. waaait for it….. "this was the worst horror of the war" Dammit.
    2.) (I zone out for 2 seconds) "… this was modern war" Dammit again

  38. LORD Eyehead says:

    Wait, the FRENCH doubted the British as a fighting force?

  39. Corristo89 says:

    So basically the less comical version of throwing dead bodies plagued with, well, plague over the wells of your enemy. War has the nasty side-effect of bringing those in command to the conclusion "anything goes". At some point, no tactic or technology is too dirty or cruel, as long as it gets results.
    The USA tried this once (well, twice) with the dropping of nuclear weapons on mostly civilian targets and the result was a shortened war. Luckily, no one has ever stooped that low again to date, although we came pretty close a few times.

  40. Khaled Ismail says:

    "it wasnt really the British soldiers, but their commanders that had been doubted" … pretty much sums up England's football team.

  41. A Physics Professor says:

    No room for field initiative.

  42. Elton Garcia says:

    speed history

  43. Joseph James says:

    I am curious to know if there are any Verdun players that watch this series.

  44. Nenad Filipović says:

    Could you do a special about Nadezda Petrovic, a Serbian painter and volontier nurse fighting tifus? Valjevo is my hometown.

  45. 92Flying says:

    Dear The Great War, i love your show. Its one of the most amazing things on youtube. But i would like to see Indy using more often the map to show where the actual event happened.

  46. Matori Torima says:

    50 percent of man in kingdom of Serbia and about 30 percent of all people died in ww1….country of 4 550 000……ty for nice episode about serbs,make smth about kolubara battle!On west point school they teach about Kolubara battle!

  47. stevesb97 says:

    Indy's a little biased towards the British

  48. TheQuattroEspada says:

    Why do you use Russian Flag, but not Russian Empire's one?

  49. IMAPROUDCANADIAN says:

    thanks for mentioning the Canadian troops

  50. Anaris10 says:

    I thought the "Bite and Hold" idea originated with Gen.Rawlinson prior to the Battle of  Neuve Chapelle and Haig was not in favor of those tactics because it wasn't the "Big Push"?.That's the impression I get from Peter Hart's "The Somme" where Haig denigrates Rawlinson's tactics as not ambitious enough.

  51. Bardiya says:

    Indy & team, lil confused here, hoping for some clarification… just to make sure I understand, is the implication here that Austria left their own sick soldiers behind enemy lines on purpose so that the illness would spread in Serbia?

  52. Will Dorsey says:

    General winter ain't got shit on General typhus

  53. Ignacio Díez says:

    I had heard of general Winter, but General Tifus… Damn

  54. dugroz says:

    How many white shirts and gray vests do you own?

  55. Ludvix yt says:

    and i've always tought ww2 was the most interesting, starting to wonder…

  56. Spooker Red Menace says:

    the name Conrad von Hotzendorf should be spoken in the same way as Dr.  Mudd is spoken as in my name is mudd..meaning foolishness or disgrace . Dr. Mudd was convicted of being Booth's conspirator…

  57. Jordi Strybos says:

    Where is conrad?

  58. Sam Moore says:

    Sounds like the same situation as the US Army in Vietnam. Call in and ask for permission before engaging the enemy. Didnt work there either…

  59. Wesley says:

    The Brits over-extended, the Plat noobs. And they didn't even have mics so they had to type to communicate. And they should've hunted down that last lucio so he couldn't regroup in time.

  60. maxmagnus777 says:

    As I am from town of Valjevo here are some extra details: When the army liberated Valjevo they went from house to house. In there they had found babies butchered, mothers strangled, elderly shot. They murdered anybody they could, even the families of the doctors that were to take care of their wounded. As the epidemic rose up the shortage of nurses and doctors brought in the country many humanitarians from all over the world. They came from Ireland, France, G. Britain, Russia, Australia, USA… They were doctors, nuns, nurses, and even volunteers with almost none experience. They helped so much that many of them were awarded the highest possible honors. Such bravery is still talked about and highly respected.

  61. Legowarfare 14 says:

    I hooked up ww2 I saw this and figured I'll try it now I love this channel

  62. HistoryWes says:

    I'm really enjoying this series. There is so much detail here, it's amazing. Great stuff.

  63. Engel says:

    I find it amusing that the Armeniën genocide episode has disabled comments and the most dislikes, poor Truks are truly brainwashed.

  64. Ungrateful Dodo Bird says:

    OMG Austria-Hungary is so in-competent. It's actually making me mad

  65. Šarūnas says:

    I like your show, but it is wrong to say that Kaunas (Kovno) is northern Poland, it was never a part of Poland, although at that time it was occupied by Russians

  66. Haiying Hu says:

    The sad thing is, I've learned more from the channel than from school.

  67. NuxVom says:

    02:10 Heavy bombardment wasn't possible in the Boer War as there were no static lines. The Boer Commandos practised a hit-and-run guerrilla war against the traditional British armies. After the First Boer War the British returned to England to lick their wounds and rethink their tactics.
    No more bright red uniforms and shiny buttons, they adopted battle plans better suited to the local conditions and destroyed Boer farms, killing all livestock, burning everything to the ground. They then incarcerated women and children in horrific concentration camps, causing thousands of civilian deaths. Only then did the Boers surrender, to return to destroyed farms and families. Thanks to Kitchener, we saw the first attempt at genocide in the 20th century.
    It's no wonder there was a reluctance on the South African side to take up arms against the Germans just a scant few years after the Boer War.

  68. iTz ATL Clutch says:

    And this right here was part of the stupidest moves because the British communications sucked

  69. Onyx1916 says:

    Neuve-Chapelle could have been pretty decisive. If only the British command structure hadn't been so rigid…

  70. Onyx1916 says:

    Attack fails? Thousands of men die. Attack succeeds? Thousands of men die. Don't attack? Thousands of men die. Trying a new weapon? Thousands of men die. Trying new tactics? Thousands of men die. Artillery shell shortage? Thousands of men die. Plenty of artillery shells? Thousands of men die. Not enough machine guns? Thousands of men die. Enough machine guns? Thousands of men die.

    I could go on, but you get the point.

  71. PatrioticLemonZ says:

    Wasn’t the Canaidian Expiditionary force in this battle?

  72. Jiacheng Yao says:

    Have a project on ww1 just watch the great war

  73. Jason Larsen says:

    IVE SHARED ON FB WITH 2000 PEOPLE! THIS IS THE BEST HISTORICAL RESOURCE FOR WW1 IVE EVER SEEN ONLINE!
    THANK YOU SO MUCH!

  74. Elaniago says:

    #respectforserbia

  75. Newone Very says:

    The British spread more disease in iraq and the levant

  76. pan edek says:

    great channel !!. thanks from greetings Poland !

  77. Doug Earnest says:

    Thanks for taking the time to mention Typhus. Throughout most of human history, diseases (and non-combat injuries – such as trenchfoot and freezing to death) have caused more casualties in warfare than combat, and WW1 was no exception. In the case of the Great War, the reason the ratio wasn't higher was because of the surreal rate at which soldiers were being slaughtered in combat.

  78. Ed van Akkeren says:

    I studied English, but I doubted if I had not better take History instead. With you, Indy, as my history teacher, I might have taken that route.

  79. Mimas says:

    One thing that made the British Army inferior to the German Army was that they had longer decision making cycles. In the German Army, low level commanders were expected to seize the initiative whenever opportunities arose, even if it meant disobeying orders from their commanding officers. In the British Army, low level commanders did not have the same degree of freedom to exercise their own judgment, and instead had to wait for instructions from their superior officers. In war, opportunities come and go quickly. The army that can make faster decisions in a rapidly changing environment will outfight armies that are slower at making decisions, all other things being equal.

  80. Henry Solstice says:

    Dough boy walking over this now ?

  81. Thomas Bernecky says:

    The more I watch this and shake my head, the more I think the Generals should lead from the front.

  82. Max Vieralilja says:

    You don't mess with General Typhus and General Winter.

  83. Googu Daddy says:

    Sikhs fought here

  84. Senna Rain says:

    Very well put together.

  85. BOOMxCHIKN says:

    Im about 3 years to late but, there were rumors during and shortly after the war that the soldiers sick with typhus were left behind on purpose in hopes they would infect the Serbians. I dont know how much validity there is to them but it wouldnt surprise me

  86. Jonnyreb1988 says:

    My great grandfather fought at Neuve Chapelle. He was hit later at hill 60. Being 15 he was made a scout and shot from a tree by a German sniper, being hit in the right shoulder. Later after regaining consciousness, he was stabbed in the left lung. The Salvation Army pulled him off the field.
    I have his soldiers book that details this and still has the blood from his wound stained across the front.

  87. Kerry Sammy says:

    Hello. I am interested in the involvement of troops from British India in the battle of Neuve Chapelle. If the memorials are true, the battle was not only with troops from Britain against the Germans

  88. Ron Donahue says:

    This is a excellent series and maybe a chance to finally understand the event.
    I do find one fault… is it me or are the maps difficult to easily absorb because water is not blue?
    It does blend well with the decor of the set however.

  89. Yashvendra Singh Rathore says:

    All soldiers were not British in the first place. Soldiers were from India too and it's stupid of you to not mention it even once. You are providing misleading information.

  90. Artem Stepanenko says:

    I can't stop watching your videos. I wish I found this channel 4 years ago – thank you for such an amazing job you did!

  91. Achilleas Labrou says:

    At 1:55 is mentioned the use of aircraft with wireless radio equipment.
    Musgrave was convinced that wireless had a vital role to play especially for RFC aircraft for spotting and reporting back the fall of artillery fire. The results of the artillery fire were easy enough for the pilot to observe; the problem was communicating any necessary corrections to the firing battery. The early method was for the flier to write a note and drop it to the ground where it could be recovered. The only other system saw a 'forward observer', often supported in a very exposed basket suspended beneath a balloon, who had to make sketches of what he saw over the enemy lines and then the information was dropped over the side and ferried to the British batteries as ranging aids.
    No 9 Squadron, under the command of Musgrave devised a system where pilots could use wireless telegraphy to help the artillery hit specific targets. The aircraft observer carried a wireless set and a map and after identifying the position of an enemy target was able to send messages such as A5, B3, etc. to the artillery commander. Musgrave's 'Zone Call procedure.

    The wireless operators' work was often carried out under heavy artillery fire in makeshift dug-outs. The artillery batteries were important targets and antennas were a lot less robust than the guns, hence prone to damage requiring immediate repair. As well as taking down and interpreting the numerous signals coming in from the aircraft, the operator had to communicate back to the aircraft by means of cloth strips laid out on the ground or a signalling lamp to give visual confirmation that the signals had been received. Until 1917 the wireless communication was one way as no receiver was mounted in the aircraft and the ground station could not transmit to the pilot.

  92. Thomas Brand says:

    General Typhus saves the day! Kind of…

  93. Lancashire AGoGo says:

    No wonder the campaign failed if the Brits passed messages through those guys at 4:11 😀😀😀

  94. deltavee2 says:

    WHAT is with that damned cowbell in the background?!!!

  95. Numor FutÎncă says:

    I wanted to leave this at the last episode
    You must be at a level of stupidity of your own to fight russians in winter

  96. seneca983 says:

    7:47 "This was a week of flux"

    Flux as in the disease.

  97. 0145ako says:

    Thank you , my great uncle, Jacob Rivers was awarded the Victoria Cross at this battle . Sadly he never made it home.

  98. indy_go_blue60 says:

    Antietam, "the bloodiest day in American history" with some 23,000 casualties, wasn't even a drop in a bucket compared to the things that happened in The Great War.

  99. R E Malm says:

    … awesome, words can't express, did we learn? 😉 …

  100. Hissam Ullah says:

    Neuve Chapelle is to India and Pakistan what Gallipoli is to Australia and New Zealand or Vimy Ridge to Canada.

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