Digital library

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An electronic library is a focused collection
of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material,
stored as electronic media formats, along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving
the files and media contained in the library collection. Digital libraries can vary immensely in size
and scope, and can be maintained by individuals, organizations, or affiliated with established
physical library buildings or institutions, or with academic institutions. The electronic content may be stored locally,
or accessed remotely via computer networks. An electronic library is a type of information
retrieval system. The term digital libraries was first popularized
by the NSFNASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. These draw heavily on As We May Think by Vannevar
Bush in 1945, which set out a vision not in terms of technology, but user experience. The term virtual library was initially used
interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are
virtual in other senses. A description of the initiatives and understandings
leading to digital libraries is given in In the context of the DELOS, a Network of
Excellence on Digital Libraries, and, a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability,
Best Practices and Modelling Foundations, Digital Library researchers and practitioners
and software developer produced a Digital Library Reference Model which defines a digital
library as: “A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and
preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted
user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according
to comprehensive codified policies.” A distinction is often made between content
that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has
been converted from a physical medium, e.g. paper, by digitizing. It should also be noted that not all electronic
content is in digital data format. The term hybrid library is sometimes used
for libraries that have both physical collections and electronic collections. For example, American Memory is a digital
library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve
as long term archives, such as arXiv and the Internet Archive. Others, such as the Digital Public Library
of America, seek to make digital information widely accessible through public libraries. Academic repositories
Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of
the institution’s books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were
‘born digital’. Many of these repositories are made available
to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access,
in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers
often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories
are sometimes referred to as digital libraries. Digital archives
Physical archives differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives are defined as:
Containing primary sources of information rather than the secondary sources found in
a library. Having their contents organized in groups
rather than individual items. Having unique contents. The technology used to create digital libraries
is even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these
general rules. In other words, “digital archives” or “online
archives” will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described
individually rather than in groups or collections. Further, because they are digital their contents
are easily reproducible and may indeed have been reproduced from elsewhere. The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered
to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials. The future
Large scale digitization projects are underway at Google, the Million Book Project, and Internet
Archive. With continued improvements in book handling
and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition and books, and development
of alternative depositories and business models, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity. Just as libraries have ventured into audio
and video collections, so have digital libraries such as the Internet Archive. Google Books project recently received a court
victory on proceeding with their book-scanning project that was halted by the Authors’ guild. This helped open the road for libraries to
work with Google to better reach patrons who are accustomed to computerized information. According to Larry Lannom, Director of Information
Management Technology at the nonprofit Corporation for National Research Initiatives, “all the
problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving.” He goes on to state, “If in 100 years people
can still read your article, we’ll have solved the problem.” Daniel Akst, author of The Webster Chronicle,
proposes that “the future of libraries — and of information — is digital.” Peter Lyman and Hal Variant, information scientists
at the University of California, Berkeley, estimate that “the world’s total yearly production
of print, film, optical, and magnetic content would require roughly 1.5 billion gigabytes
of storage.” Therefore, they believe that “soon it will
be technologically possible for an average person to access virtually all recorded information.” Searching
Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web resources
since they frequently cannot be located by search engine crawlers. Some digital libraries create special pages
or sitemaps to allow search engines to find all their resources. Digital libraries frequently use the Open
Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting to expose their metadata to other
digital libraries, and search engines like Google Scholar, Yahoo! and Scirus can also
use OAI-PMH to find these deep web resources. There are two general strategies for searching
a federation of digital libraries: distributed searching, and
searching previously harvested metadata. Distributed searching typically involves a
client sending multiple search requests in parallel to a number of servers in the federation. The results are gathered, duplicates are eliminated
or clustered, and the remaining items are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like Z39.50 are frequently used
in distributed searching. A benefit to this approach is that the resource-intensive
tasks of indexing and storage are left to the respective servers in the federation. A drawback to this approach is that the search
mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capabilities of each database;
therefore, making it difficult to assemble a combined result consisting of the most relevant
found items. Searching over previously harvested metadata
involves searching a locally stored index of information that has previously been collected
from the libraries in the federation. When a search is performed, the search mechanism
does not need to make connections with the digital libraries it is searching – it already
has a local representation of the information. This approach requires the creation of an
indexing and harvesting mechanism which operates regularly, connecting to all the digital libraries
and querying the whole collection in order to discover new and updated resources. OAI-PMH is frequently used by digital libraries
for allowing metadata to be harvested. A benefit to this approach is that the search
mechanism has full control over indexing and ranking algorithms, possibly allowing more
consistent results. A drawback is that harvesting and indexing
systems are more resource-intensive and therefore expensive. Software
There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable
ones see Digital library software. Institutional repository software, which focuses
primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly
locally produced academic outputs, can be found in Institutional repository software. This software may be proprietary, as is the
case with the Library of Congress which uses Digiboard and CTS to manage digital content. Digitization
In the past few years, procedures for digitizing books at high speed and comparatively low
cost have improved considerably with the result that it is now possible to digitize millions
of books per year. Google book-scanning project is also working
with libraries to offer digitize books pushing forward on the digitize book realm. Advantages
The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives
and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public
bodies alike. Traditional libraries are limited by storage
space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because
digital information requires very little physical space to contain it. As such, the cost of maintaining a digital
library can be much lower than that of a traditional library. A physical library must spend large sums of
money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances,
do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloging input
to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt
innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio
book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs;
conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OP AC catalog is sufficient. An important advantage to digital conversion
is increased accessibility to users. They also increase availability to individuals
who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational
affiliation. No physical boundary. The user of a digital library need not to
go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the
same information, as long as an Internet connection is available. Round the clock availability A major advantage
of digital libraries is that people can gain access 24/7 to the information. Multiple access. The same resources can be used simultaneously
by a number of institutions and patrons. This may not be the case for copyrighted material:
a library may have a license for “lending out” only one copy at a time; this is achieved
with a system of digital rights management where a resource can become inaccessible after
expiration of the lending period or after the lender chooses to make it inaccessible. Information retrieval. The user is able to use any search term to
search the entire collection. Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly
interfaces, giving click able access to its resources. Preservation and conservation. Digitization is not a long-term preservation
solution for physical collections, but does succeed in providing access copies for materials
that would otherwise fall to degradation from repeated use. Digitized collections and born-digital objects
pose many preservation and conservation concerns that analog materials do not. Please see the following “Problems” section
of this page for examples. Space. Whereas traditional libraries are limited
by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information,
simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them
and media storage technologies are more affordable than ever before. Added value. Certain characteristics of objects, primarily
the quality of images, may be improved. Digitization can enhance legibility and remove
visible flaws such as stains and discoloration. Easily accessible. Digital preservation Digital preservation aims to ensure that digital
media and information systems are still interpretable into the indefinite future. Each necessary component of this must be migrated,
preserved or emulated. Typically lower levels of systems are emulated,
bit-streams are preserved and operating systems are emulated as a virtual machine. Only where the meaning and content of digital
media and information systems are well understood is migration possible, as is the case for
office documents. However, at least one organization, the Wider
Net Project, has created an offline digital library, the e Granary, by reproducing materials
on a 4 TB hard drive. Instead of a bit-stream environment, the digital
library contains a built-in proxy server and search engine so the digital materials can
be accessed using an Internet browser. Also, the materials are not preserved for
the future. The e Granary is intended for use in places
or situations where Internet connectivity is very slow, non-existent, unreliable, unsuitable
or too expensive. Copyright and licensing
Digital libraries are hampered by copyright law because, unlike with traditional printed
works, the laws of digital copyright are still being formed. The republication of material on the web by
libraries may require permission from rights holders, and there is a conflict of interest
between libraries and the publishers who may wish to create online versions of their acquired
content for commercial purposes. In 2010, it was estimated that twenty-three
percent of books in existence were created before 1923 and thus out of copyright. Of those printed after this date, only five
percent were still in print as of 2010. Thus, approximately seventy-two percent of
books were not available to the public. There is a dilution of responsibility that
occurs as a result of the distributed nature of digital resources. Complex intellectual property matters may
become involved since digital material is not always owned by a library. The content is, in many cases, public domain
or self-generated content only. Some digital libraries, such as Project Gutenberg,
work to digitize out-of-copyright works and make them freely available to the public. An estimate of the number of distinct books
still existent in library catalogues from 2000 BC to 1960, has been made. The Fair Use Provisions under the Copyright
Act of 1976 provide specific guidelines under which circumstances libraries are allowed
to copy digital resources. Four factors that constitute fair use are
“Purpose of the use, Nature of the work, Amount or substantiality used and Market impact.” Some digital libraries acquire a license to
lend their resources. This may involve the restriction of lending
out only one copy at a time for each license, and applying a system of digital rights management
for this purpose. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998
was an act created in the United States to attempt to deal with the introduction of digital
works. This Act incorporates two treaties from the
year 1996. It criminalizes the attempt to circumvent
measures which limit access to copyrighted materials. It also criminalizes the act of attempting
to circumvent access control. This act provides an exemption for nonprofit
libraries and archives which allows up to three copies to be made, one of which may
be digital. This may not be made public or distributed
on the web, however. Further, it allows libraries and archives
to copy a work if its format becomes obsolete. Copyright issues persist. As such, proposals have been put forward suggesting
that digital libraries be exempt from copyright law. Although this would be very beneficial to
the public, it may have a negative economic effect and authors may be less inclined to
create new works. Another issue that complicates matters is
the desire of some publishing houses to restrict the use of digit materials such as e-books
purchased by libraries. Whereas with printed books, the library owns
the book until it can no longer be circulated, publishers want to limit the number of times
an e-book can be checked out before the library would need to repurchase that book. “[HarperCollins] began licensing use of each
e-book copy for a maximum of 26 loans. This affects only the most popular titles
and has no practical effect on others. After the limit is reached, the library can
repurchase access rights at a lower cost than the original price.” While from a publishing perspective, this
sounds like a good balance of library lending and protecting themselves from a feared decrease
in book sales, libraries are not set up to monitor their collections as such. They acknowledge the increased demand of digital
materials available to patrons and the desire of a digital library to become expanded to
include best sellers, but publisher licensing may hinder the process… Metadata creation
In traditional libraries, the ability to find works of interest is directly related to how
well they were cataloged. While cataloging electronic works digitized
from a library’s existing holding may be as simple as copying or moving a record from
the print to the electronic form, complex and born-digital works require substantially
more effort. To handle the growing volume of electronic
publications, new tools and technologies have to be designed to allow effective automated
semantic classification and searching. While full text search can be used for some
items, there are many common catalog searches which cannot be performed using full text,
including: finding texts which are translations of other
texts linking texts published under pseudonyms to
the real authors differentiating non-fiction from parody
Disadvantages Digital libraries, or at least their digital
collections, unfortunately also have brought their own problems and challenges in areas
such as: Equity of access – the digital divide. Interoperability between systems and software. User authentication for access to collections. Information organization. Interface design. Digital preservation. Training and development. See also
Bibliographic database Mobile library
Traveling library References External links
CNRI-DARPA: D-Lib Magazine Electronic publication that primarily focuses on digital library
research and development

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