“APA Style” – Sunday with a Librarian Workshop, ESU, 2-16-2020

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Okay everybody, I hope that you can hear me. Okay. Welcome to Citations 101: Citing in APA.I’m Cynthia Kane and I am one of the instruction librarians and I also do assessment here for Emporia State University. In addition, I’m also the librarian liaison for Psychology and Counselor Education. As well as the School of Library and Information Management. So I think most of you are probably in counselor education or in one of those related fields. Please always feel free to get in touch with me if you have any questions, anything going on that you would like to know about on doing research. APA style is what we’re going to be covering tonight and so forth. I am so happy to have so many people joining us online. And then we have people here in person as well. The way this is going to work tonight is that I’m going to go through my PowerPoint presentation first. This is also on Google Slides. And so I’m going to make sure before we leave tonight That I have email addresses for all of you because I will send you the link to my Google Slides presentation later and then that way you can always go back and take a look at it as well. I am actually recording this presentation. So while I am recording it and then doing the presentation for the next 15 to 20 minutes, I actually will not have any questions taken. The reason is that I’m going to actually make this available to you as a YouTube video so that you can go back and take a look at it as well. After I finish my presentation, then I’ll let you all know when I end the recording and then I’ll be more than happy to take care of any questions that any of you have. So again, just really delighted that so many people could join us tonight. This is wonderful. So we’re going to go ahead and start. And the first thing we’re going to do is take a look at comparing some differences between APA and other citation styles. So, some of you may be very familiar with APA citation style. For others of you, this may be totally new. You may have used other citation styles and then suddenly you get into a psychology or a counselor education class. And your professor says, “I need you to start using APA style and everything needs to be entirely correct.” And you might think to yourself, “Well, great. Now how am I going to do this?” Once you get, I think, a feel for the way APA works -I won’t say it’s easy, but there’s two elements that I think are rather easy to remember. And in my PowerPoint presentation, I’m actually going to show you some different links to sites that actually will make it easier for you to double check references, how to format a paper, and so forth. So first of all, why is APA the way that it is? Well, it’s actually designed specifically for scientific research, whereas the MLA, or Modern Language Association style that sometimes people use in Composition classes or English classes, that’s designed more for humanities disciplines. So what happens with APA is there are two key elements. The in text citations for the references, teferences that you do within the paper itself. You know that you have to focus on the year of publication. So if an article was published in 2016, put 2016 in parentheses, and so forth. The reason they’re doing that is that with APA, the focus is more upon when the item was actually published for current publication, for current information. So just in case you ever wondered why you have to focus upon the year, that’s why. APA focuses very much upon currency of scientific information. They also want you to be very, very accurate. And that’s why with in text citations in APA, you have to put the authors and then again you have to go ahead and put the year in parentheses. Also, if you do a direct quote, like a direct quotation from an article or a book in your paper with APA, you also must include the page number or pages where that came from. If you are paraphrasing, which simply means that you are taking someone else’s words and you’re putting them in your own words, but you’re still borrowing that idea from that book or that article, you do not have to use the page numbers, but you’re still giving credit to the author or authors. So I think once you get those elements down, it’s fairly easy to remember. So I thought it might be kind of interesting to look at some differences on APA and the Chicago Manual of Style and MLA. So what I’ve done on this slide is actually taken the same article. So this is basically the same article. I’ve actually put it into APA style, Chicago Manual of Style, and then MLA. And one thing that will see immediately is that if you ever had to use the Chicago Manual of Style, which some of you may not have ever done this, the Chicago Manual of Style and MLA are actually very similar because they tend to do things like spell out the all their first names such as Deepa R. Camanga, Dana A. Cavallo, and so forth. APA, though, notice a huge difference here. With APA, we actually do not spell out the first names of the authors. We’re using the initials. So if I publish something in APA, I could be Kane, C. or Kane, C.M. There’s a really interesting reason for that. The reason is that with APA, they do not want you to be distracted by items such as the gender of the author because APA is very concerned about potential bias with gender or other ways. So the focus is very much on the content of the information. There’s a big difference between APA and then the Chicago Manual of Style, and then MLA. With MLA and Chicago Manual of Style, sometimes we’re much more dependent on the actual names of the authors, because we really need to track down who the authors actually are. So that’s why they tend to spell out the names. And I just always thought that was kind of interesting. I always wondered about that. So with APA, we are not focused upon the gender. We’re using the initials of their first names plus their middle name. There’s another big difference too. So these are basically the same citations for one journal article. With APA, notice that we’re not using double quotation marks around the title of the article. In contrast, for using double quotation marks here with Chicago Manual of Style, And also for MLA, that’s just more of a stylistic difference. With APA, we do not use double quotation marks around the title of the article. And the following words are actually in lowercase. And sometimes – we’re going to see an example of this in just a second – if you use Cite or a citation tools generator from the database, which is a database that we have from our library, you may find that there may be some errors that come over and sometimes I do have students who are really frustrated. They’ll say, “I used the citation generator. Mrs. Kane, and I just don’t understand why this is wrong.” Well, it’s because the information is probably entered in a certain way to begin with. So we always have to go back and we have to proofread our citations from the citation generator to see if we need to make those corrections. We’re going to look at this in just a second as well. Another key difference is that we do use the volumes. So this would come from Nicotine and Tobacco Research. This is actually the journal title. This is volume number 17 and this is kind of hard to see on the screen. That with APA, for some odd reason, they want you to italicize the volume. Whereas down here, this volume, and then with MLA as well, you don’t have to italicize. And all these weird little things that you have to be aware of. So again, I’m going to give you some help in just a second to help you proofread and figure out the citations are correct or if you need to make any changes. And I just mentioned that if you are using a “Cite” or a citation tools feature from a database, Sometimes what you do have to do is go in and correct what has been actually brought over from that particular record. And that simply means that with the record in a database, it’s actually “called metadata.” That’s kind of a librarian term. And that’s basically the information about that article. So what happened with this, I decided to have some fun with this one. I went to a database called Academic Search Complete and I found this citation. And I actually used the “Cite” feature in Academic Search Complete to generate the citation in APA style. But what we noticed is that there are some errors that came over. So remember, we talked about the fact that these words in the title of the article had to be put in lowercase. They came over in uppercase. And the reason that that happened was that these words were actually an uppercase in the original record of the database. So that’s why sometimes that will happen when you do that. So I would have to go back, do some editing and then just put those in lowercase. This one looks pretty good otherwise, but there’s another little error that slips through here. So that word “Of”, National Journal of, Notice that actually is capitalized. I would actually have to put that in lowercase because words like that are actually in lowercase. But again, it was probably capitalized with the original record. So that’s why it came over the way that it did. All these little things, that it’s sometimes it’s kind of hard to catch them, but again there are ways that you can learn to proofread these. So I wanted to spend a little bit of time tonight also talking about that. The APA Publication Manual has actually come out with a new edition, the seventh edition. It was published late last year, later. The sixth edition was published in 2009. So think about everything that has changed in 10 years in terms of social media, other types of items that are now available that we didn’t know how to cite in APA, tremendous changes. So it was time for a new edition. So what you want to do with your department or your professor – I’m finding that a lot of departments here at ESU are using the sixth edition of APA for the rest of this semester so that they’re not having to change mid semester or mid year. And then I think a lot of departments, then will plan to go ahead and change to the seventh edition when the fall semester begins. So, more than likely you will still use the sixth edition. But if you’re not sure, check with your professor, ask your professor what they would prefer. There are some big differences between the sixth edition and the seventh edition, which I think are very interesting. One thing that the seventh edition does is it’s actually including more specific guidelines for writing papers without bias. So They are basically teaching us how to use language that would avoid any bias or prejudices in terms of age, disability, gender, race, intersectionality, and so forth. This is a huge change for APA. They are now adopting the pronoun “they” as singular rather than saying “he or she”. So that’s a huge change. I’ve noticed that change in language, which I think is a very good change. So that’s a big changes as far as APA is concerned, they’re saying that it’s okay now to use the word “they” as singular. They are all also offering a sample paper, but I’m going to show you some ways you can also see sample papers online. And they actually include a lot of new reference examples. So what they’re doing in the seventh edition is showing you how to do different citations or different refeences for social media. How do you cite something from Instagram? How do you cite something from Twitter, for example, because you might have to do that. So they’re including a lot more examples for that. And this last one, this may not be as much of a change for you. It’s a change for me because I grew up in the world of typewriters. So I typed all my papers on a typewriter. And when I was typing on the typewriter. I learned how to put two spaces after the end of the sentence, because that’s what you did when you typed. And my poor thumb is so used to that. Oh my gosh. So now they’re saying, basically only put one space after a period, after your punctuation at the end of a sentence. Again, you all may be much more used to that. That’s something I’m really having to get used to, as well. So just a few changes. But like I said, If you’re not sure whether you’re supposed to use the sixth edition or the seventh edition, check with your professor and they will tell you what they would want you to use. So now we’re going to have some fun. So what I want to do now is show you some different links that I have on here. And then when I share the Google Slides with you, you’ll be able to go ahead and click on these links as well. There’s a lot of help online to help you get started with APA style. And the first one that I’m going to show you is something called the APA Style Blog. Now this is actually from the American Psychological Association. So you’re getting credible, reliable information. There is one blog for the seventh edition. And they also kept around their blog for the sixth edition if you’re still using the sixth edition. And what I like about these links is that they will actually help answer a lot of questions that you might have. So I’m going to go ahead and click on this link for the sixth edition. And I’m just going to check and make sure. We should still be sharing this. Yes. Just want to make sure I’m still sharing this with everybody online. William Allen White Library: So I am in the APA Style Blog for the sixth edition. And what I really like about this is that this is updated basically pretty much weekly and there’s what I was telling you about on the singular “they”. But what I really like about this is that, let’s say that I have a question about social media. I can just search on the blog. And if I have a specific question about how I should cite a Twitter post, I can take a look here at this post and this will tell me how I should cite Twitter posts in text. And then how the actual Twitter posts should appear in the reference list at the end, and you see how easy that is to do. This is what I absolutely love about the APA style blog. I actually use this to answer a lot of my questions because if I’m writing an article in APA style, I don’t always remember some of the finer points of how to do something. So you can do this. You could say, how do I cite a journal article with DOI? In case you don’t know what a DOI is, a DOI stands for digital object identifier. It is a permanent link to an article. Not all article references have DOIs. If a DOI is included in a reference that you generate, such as from a citation generator, you would go ahead and put that in. If it’s not there, you don’t worry about finding it. So it’s just one thing if it is there. And if it isn’t, then we just don’t even deal with that. And if I went in here with reference examples, this is how I could look up a very quick reference example of how to do a journal article and there’s that DOI that I was talking about. And it does say if a journal article does have a DOI, include the DOI in the reference. If a journal article does not have a DOI, if it is from an academic research database – that means if you found it in PsycINFO or Academic Search Complete, you actually do not put in the long URL that goes along with the journal article. The reason you don’t do that in APA is that that actually isn’t a URL that somebody can click on. It’s very unique to that specific library and it isn’t going to leave the person to the article. So again, you see how easy that was for me just to click and then do that search within the APA style blog. Again, I have been using the APA style blog, sixth edition. And if we go back here, I’m giving you the link then for the seventh edition. You’ll be able to get that on Google Slides. Another link is And what I like about this. I’m going to check this again. Yes, we’re still sharing that. So we are good to go. What I like about this is that, again, this is more general information from the American Psychological Association. And if I had a question here, I could go to paper format, for example. And this will actually help me do things such as set up a title page. It tells me exactly what should be on here for a student paper. Sometimes I get questions from students on whether they should include a running head, which is like kind of a header at the top of your paper. Usually for a student paper you don’t include a running head, unless your instructor specifically asks for that. So again, I’m a big believer in going back to your instructor to see what that person would want. Remember to click back here again. And I believe if I go up here to instructional aids. Yes. So I’m still at this link, And I click on instructional aids at the very top here, this actually will give you sample papers. So I could look at what a sample student paper should look like, and this will tell me everything that I would need to look at. I’m scrolling kind of fast here. I apologize. Including what your references list should look like at the very end. So that’s a very handy way of looking at that. Or I could go back here. And if I wanted a quick tutorial of how to create references using the seventh edition, I could watch one of these tutorials or I could go to handouts and guides. And this will help me kind of look at quick guides for doing references. How to do heading levels and so forth. So there’s a lot of help out there. This is actually available directly from APA Another one I’m going to show you here is actually a link to something called the Online Writing Lab from Excelsior College. Now a lot of you may be familiar with the OWL at Purdue sites for APA or MLA. I would actually not recommend those anymore. And I’ll tell you why. And the reason I don’t really recommend the OWL at Purdue sites any more, is that they actually are getting a lot of advertising on their sites. And I find that to be rather distracting and I see some people here in person, nodding their heads. So I tend to recommend this link from Excelsior College. I’m going to go ahead and click on this. Again, you’ll have this link that you’ll be able to take a look at. This works very similar to the OWL at Purdue site, but it doesn’t have any ads, which I really like. So if I wanted to see – and they’ve updated this with the seventh edition – but as you see, if you’re still using the sixth edition, there’s a tab there as well. So you could use either one. But what they will do here is basically do the same thing that you would have seen at OWL at Purdue. If I wanted to see how to do a reference, If I needed a quick review of how to do an online journal article or an article from a database. I can click on this. Let’s go to an article from a database. And I mentioned earlier that if you are using like a PDF or a full text article from a database, such as PsycINFO, if the DOI is there you could include that. If it does not have a DOI, with the sixth edition, you could just go ahead and put this in. Now this one is kind of interesting because this is one that was retrieved directly from a website, So we did put the URL here because that’s one that’s really accessible and available to everybody. That one is just a little bit different. But again, with the Excelsior College site, I really feel very comfortable and confident recommending that for quick help as well. We’ve already mentioned the fact that if you do use Cite or citation tools from electronic databases like PsycINFO, check your data because you may have to do some corrections. So I’m wanting to do a quick plug here. We also have a new resource that’s called APA Academic Writer. And in two weeks, I’m going to show you that in just a second, I’m doing another Sunday workshop specifically on Academic Writer, and I would love it if you all can come to that. It is still the same time, basically, same place, all of that. Some of you might be familiar with this, but this also might be new for you. Academic Writer is from APA and essentially what it will do is, it’s going to do everything you need to know about writing papers and doing references. So if we were to go to the library’s new website, which is And checking this again. Yep, we’re still good to go there, we’re going to click on Databases. And then I’m going to click on, go back up here, Academic Writer from the American Psychological Association. So this is actually from our Databases list. You do have to click on Welcome. And you do have to create a free account with Academic Writer. Please be sure that you’re accessing Academic Writer through our databases. Otherwise, it’s just not going to work for you. And I’m going to put in my email address. And I’m going to go ahead and log in again. This is the bad part. I always laugh with students because I’m as bad as anybody else. I have passwords saved on my own computer. And because of that, I don’t always remember my password. So let’s see if I have mine right here. So it doesn’t like that, but I’ll just go ahead and login here. There we go. Okay, so once you create a free account with Academic Writer, you have access to these three centers. Learn, Reference, and Write. I’m going to highlight this very, very quickly. If you’re interested in learning more about Academic Writer, in my next slide, I will tell you when the next workshop is coming up with that or if you would like to, you can talk with me. Or if you are at a distance. If you’d like to make an appointment with me through Zoom, you’re very welcome to do that. So I’d be very happy to teach you more about this. The Learning Center, with Academic Writer, will let you do very quick guides, kind of like looking at a quick YouTube video on how to do something. So if I wanted to go to a quick guide and if I needed a quick reference – basically a quick how to on how to do an appendix, within APA for a paper, I can watch a very quick video on that. Or more often. I go to Sample References because sometimes I might need to see how to do an APA style reference for a Wikipedia article. I might have to do that. Who knows? And this will give me a quick reference on how to do that. The Reference Center will actually let you build your own references. And you can actually create a reference with a template or a journal article or a book and put in all of your information here and it will generate the correct APA style reference for you. And then finally, the Write Center. Again, I’ll go more into detail on this in my Academic Writer tutorial as well. The Write Center will actually let you write a paper directly in APA style. So if you ever have to do a paper that’s for literature review or a theoretical or a metaanalysis, that will set up that template for yo,u or you can do a basic paper for a student assignment. And then you can just start typing in your title and I’m going to go back here, because I’ll show you one that I started to work on. So here’s one that’s been worked on. And it will actually let you add sections. It will let you import your references from the reference list. And once you’re done with your paper, you can export that as a Word document or a PDF document and then turn that in. The only thing that this does not have is a really nice spell checker or grammar checker. So sometimes I have students who will write their papers in Academic Writer. They’ll go ahead and export their papers as a Microsoft Word document, and then run it through Microsoft Word for grammar check and spellcheck. Again, that’s a really, really quick overview. I do encourage you to get in touch with me. If you’d like to know more about Academic Writer, but that’s probably one of the biggest savings of time that I can think of. So, if you’re interested in any other types of management programs, there are some free online management programs out there that will actually let you generate bibliographies in APA style such as Zotero and Mendeley. And I promised that I was just going to tell you. As a matter of fact, next Sunday I will be doing a workshop specifically on Zotero as a free reference management system. And again, that will let you save references directly online. It lets you import them and it will let you generate a bibliography or references list in APA style. So if you’re interested in coming to that, I will be doing that next Sunday at 7 pm central standard time. And then on Sunday, March 1, that’s when I’ll be doing another workshop here specifically on APA Academic Writer. But again, if any of you are interested in any of these and you can’t make any of the workshops, just let me know. William Allen White Library: And I’m going to end this here again with my contact information, [email protected] You can always call me too at 620-341-5480. What I’m going to do now is, I’m going to go ahead and stop our recording.

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